Andragogy in Adult Learning

Andragogy of adult education focuses upon adults’ need for knowledge, motivation, willingness, experience, self-direction and task based learning; essential for instructional design.

Good instructional or learning design for adult centred learning

Needs Analysis – broad and deep needs analysis based on learners’ knowledge, expertise and real skill gaps

Learner Input into Design – motivated when they have input and some control over learning, activities and outcomes

Learner Centred Activity – participate in learner centred activities, interaction and social learning

Experience – opportunities to contribute knowledge, expertise and reflect on their business practice

Self Direction – contribution to and management of learning activities through tasks and problem solving; post course too.


Introduction to Digital or e-Marketing for Small Business, Instructional Design Phases

  1. Conduct needs analysis with broad stakeholders in small business in addition to learners.
  2. Learners explain how they do marketing and communications throughout course, for potential course content and activities for their business needs.
  3. Opportunities for pair or group based tasks and class discussion of feedback of inputs and learning outcomes.
  4. Broader synthesis of inputs and ideas in their own business through and with other learners, and after learning.
  5. Reflect upon learning, identify any gaps in knowledge or skills that need more focus.


It can be applied to individual learning objectives or outcomes whether 10 minutes or 3 hours.


Reference List:

Gutierrez, K. (2016) Adult Learning Theories Every Instructional Designer Must Know. Available at: (Accessed on: 20 November 2017).

Pappas, C. (2013) Instructional Design: The Adult Learning Theory – Andragogy of Malcolm Knowles. Available at: (Accessed on: 20 November 2017).


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s